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  CIA World FactBook 2003

CIA - The World Factbook -- Slovenia
 
Slovenia
Flag of Slovenia
Map of Slovenia
Introduction Slovenia
Background:
The Slovene lands were part of the Holy Roman Empire and Austria until 1918 when the Slovenes joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new nation, renamed Yugoslavia in 1929. After World War II, Slovenia became a republic of the renewed Yugoslavia, which though Communist, distanced itself from Moscow's rule. Dissatisfied with the exercise of power of the majority Serbs, the Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991 after a short 10-day war. Historical ties to Western Europe, a strong economy, and a stable democracy have assisted in Slovenia's transformation to a modern state. In December 2002, Slovenia received an invitation to join NATO, and it is scheduled to accede to the EU along with nine other states on 1 May 2004. In a March 2003 referendum on NATO and EU membership, Slovenes voted 90% in favor of joining the EU and 66% in favor of joining NATO.
Geography Slovenia
Location:
Central Europe, eastern Alps bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Austria and Croatia
Geographic coordinates:
46 07 N, 14 49 E
Map references:
Europe
Area:
total: 20,273 sq km
water: 122 sq km
land: 20,151 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundaries:
total: 1,334 km
border countries: Austria 330 km, Croatia 670 km, Italy 232 km, Hungary 102 km
Coastline:
46.6 km
Maritime claims:
NA
Climate:
Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east
Terrain:
a short coastal strip on the Adriatic, an alpine mountain region adjacent to Italy and Austria, mixed mountains and valleys with numerous rivers to the east
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Triglav 2,864 m
Natural resources:
lignite coal, lead, zinc, mercury, uranium, silver, hydropower, forests
Land use:
arable land: 11.48%
permanent crops: 2.68%
other: 85.84% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
20 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
flooding and earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
Sava River polluted with domestic and industrial waste; pollution of coastal waters with heavy metals and toxic chemicals; forest damage near Koper from air pollution (originating at metallurgical and chemical plants) and resulting acid rain
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note:
despite its small size, this eastern Alpine country controls some of Europe's major transit routes
People Slovenia
Population:
1,935,677 (July 2003 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 15.3% (male 152,341; female 144,189)
15-64 years: 70% (male 687,939; female 666,194)
65 years and over: 14.7% (male 105,837; female 179,177) (2003 est.)
Median age:
total: 38.6 years
male: 37.1 years
female: 40.2 years (2002)
Population growth rate:
0.14% (2003 est.)
Birth rate:
9.23 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Death rate:
10.15 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Net migration rate:
2.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 4.42 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.26 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
male: 5.53 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.51 years
male: 71.65 years
female: 79.58 years (2003 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.27 children born/woman (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
280 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
less than 100 (2001 est.)
Nationality:
noun: Slovene(s)
adjective: Slovenian
Ethnic groups:
Slovene 88%, Croat 3%, Serb 2%, Bosniak 1%, Yugoslav 0.6%, Hungarian 0.4%, other 5% (1991)
Religions:
Roman Catholic (Uniate 2%) 70.8%, Lutheran 1%, Muslim 1%, atheist 4.3%, other 22.9%
Languages:
Slovenian 91%, Serbo-Croatian 6%, other 3%
Literacy:
definition: NA
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.6% (2003 est.)
Government Slovenia
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Slovenia
conventional short form: Slovenia
local short form: Slovenija
local long form: Republika Slovenija
Government type:
parliamentary democratic republic
Capital:
Ljubljana
Administrative divisions:
182 municipalities (obcine, singular - obcina) and 11 urban municipalities* (mestne obcine , singular - mestna obcina ) Ajdovscina, Beltinci, Benedikt, Bistrica ob Sotli, Bled, Bloke, Bohinj, Borovnica, Bovec, Braslovce, Brda, Brezice, Brezovica, Cankova, Celje*, Cerklje na Gorenjskem, Cerknica, Cerkno, Cerkvenjak, Crensovci, Crna na Koroskem, Crnomelj, Destrnik, Divaca, Dobje, Dobrepolje, Dobrna, Dobrova-Horjul-Polhov Gradec, Dobrovnik-Dobronak, Dolenjske Toplice, Dol pri Ljubljani, Domzale, Dornava, Dravograd, Duplek, Gorenja Vas-Poljane, Gorisnica, Gornja Radgona, Gornji Grad, Gornji Petrovci, Grad, Grosuplje, Hajdina, Hoce-Slivnica, Hodos-Hodos, Horjul, Hrastnik, Hrpelje-Kozina, Idrija, Ig, Ilirska Bistrica, Ivancna Gorica, Izola-Isola, Jesenice, Jezersko, Jursinci, Kamnik, Kanal, Kidricevo, Kobarid, Kobilje, Kocevje, Komen, Komenda, Koper-Capodistria*, Kostel, Kozje, Kranj*, Kranjska Gora, Krizevci, Krsko, Kungota, Kuzma, Lasko, Lenart, Lendava-Lendva, Litija, Ljubljana*, Ljubno, Ljutomer, Logatec, Loska Dolina, Loski Potok, Lovrenc na Pohorju, Luce, Lukovica, Majsperk, Maribor*, Markovci, Medvode, Menges, Metlika, Mezica, Miklavz na Dravskem Polju, Miren-Kostanjevica, Mirna Pec, Mislinja, Moravce, Moravske Toplice, Mozirje, Murska Sobota*, Muta, Naklo, Nazarje, Nova Gorica*, Novo Mesto*, Odranci, Oplotnica, Ormoz, Osilnica, Pesnica, Piran-Pirano, Pivka, Podcetrtek, Podlehnik, Podvelka, Polzela, Postojna, Prebold, Preddvor, Prevalje, Ptuj*, Puconci, Race-Fram, Radece, Radenci, Radlje ob Dravi, Radovljica, Ravne na Koroskem, Razkrizje, Ribnica, Ribnica na Pohorju, Rogasovci, Rogaska Slatina, Rogatec, Ruse, Salovci, Selnica ob Dravi, Semic, Sempeter-Vrtojba, Sencur, Sentilj, Sentjernej, Sentjur pri Celju, Sevnica, Sezana, Skocjan, Skofja Loka, Skofljica, Slovenj Gradec*, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice, Smarje pri Jelsah, Smartno ob Paki, Smartno pri Litiji, Sodrazica, Solcava, Sostanj, Starse, Store, Sveta Ana, Sveti Andraz v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Jurij, Tabor, Tisina, Tolmin, Trbovlje, Trebnje, Trnovska Vas, Trzic, Trzin, Turnisce, Velenje*, Velika Polana, Velike Lasce, Verzej, Videm, Vipava, Vitanje, Vodice, Vojnik, Vransko, Vrhnika, Vuzenica, Zagorje ob Savi, Zalec, Zavrc, Zelezniki, Zetale, Ziri, Zirovnica, Zuzemberk, Zrece
note: there may be 45 more municipalities
Independence:
25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday:
Independence Day/Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)
Constitution:
adopted 23 December 1991, effective 23 December 1991
Legal system:
based on civil law system
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Janez DRNOVSEK (since 22 December 2002)
head of government: Prime Minister Anton ROP (since 11 December 2002)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly
election results: Janez DRNOVSEK elected president; percent of vote - Janez DRNOVSEK 56.5%, Barbara BREZIGAR 43.5%; Anton ROP elected prime minister; National Assembly vote - 63 to 24
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 10 November and 1 December 2002 (next to be held in the fall of 2007); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually nominated to become prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly; election last held 6 December 2002 (next National Assembly elections to be held NA October 2004)
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly or Drzavni Zbor (90 seats, 40 are directly elected and 50 are selected on a proportional basis; note - the numbers of directly elected and proportionally elected seats varies with each election; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
election results: percent of vote by party - LDS 36%, SDS 16%, ZLSD 12%, SLS/SKD 10%, NSi 9%, SMS 4%, SNS 4%, DeSUS 5%, other 4%; seats by party - LDS 34, SDS 13, ZLSD 11, SLS 10, NSi 8, SMS 4, SNS 4, DeSUS 4, Hungarian and Italian minorities 1 each
note: the National Council or Drzavni Svet is an advisory body with limited legislative powers; it may propose laws and ask to review any National Assembly decisions; in the election of November 1997, 40 members were elected to represent local, professional, and socioeconomic interests
elections: National Assembly - last held 15 October 2000 (next to be held NA October 2004)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the Judicial Council); Constitutional Court (judges elected for nine-year terms by the National Assembly and nominated by the president)
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party of Retired (Persons) of Slovenia or DeSUS [Anton ROUS]; Liberal Democratic or LDS [Anton ROP]; New Slovenia or NSi [Andrej BAJUK]; Slovene National Party or SNS [Zmago JELINCIC]; Slovene People's Party or SLS [Franci BUT]; Slovene Youth Party or SMS [Dominic CERNJAK]; Social Democratic Party of Slovenia or SDS [Janez JANSA]; United List of Social Democrats or ZLSD [Borut PAHOR]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
NA
International organization participation:
ABEDA, ACCT (observer), BIS, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NSG, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Davorin KRACUN
FAX: [1] (202) 667-4563
consulate(s) general: New York and Cleveland
telephone: [1] (202) 667-5363
chancery: 1525 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Johnny YOUNG
embassy: Presernova 31, 1000 Ljubljana
mailing address: P. O. Box 254, Presernova 31, 1000 Ljubljana; American Embassy Ljubljana, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7140
telephone: [386] (1) 200-5500
FAX: [386] (1) 200-5555
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red, with the Slovenian seal (a shield with the image of Triglav, Slovenia's highest peak, in white against a blue background at the center; beneath it are two wavy blue lines depicting seas and rivers, and above it are three six-pointed stars arranged in an inverted triangle, which are taken from the coat of arms of the Counts of Celje, the great Slovene dynastic house of the late 14th and early 15th centuries); the seal is located in the upper hoist side of the flag centered in the white and blue bands
Economy Slovenia
Economy - overview:
Slovenia, with its historical ties to Western Europe, enjoys a GDP per capita substantially higher than that of the other transitioning economies of Central Europe. Privatization of the economy proceeded at an accelerated pace in 2002, and steps were taken to bring down the budget deficit from 2.9% of GDP in 2002 to 1.2% in 2003. Despite the economic slowdown in Europe in 2001-02, Slovenia maintained 3% growth. Structural reforms to improve the business environment allow for greater foreign participation in Slovenia's economy. Measures to curb inflation are also needed. Corruption and the high degree of coordination between government, business, and central bank policy are issues of concern in the run-up to Slovenia's scheduled 1 May 2004 accession to the European Union.
GDP:
purchasing power parity - $36 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
3% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $18,000 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3.2%
industry: 36.3%
services: 60.5% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.9%
highest 10%: 23% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
28.4 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7.4% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
857,400
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Unemployment rate:
11% (2002 est.)
Budget:
revenues: $8.11 billion
expenditures: $8.32 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997 est.)
Industries:
ferrous metallurgy and aluminum products, lead and zinc smelting, electronics (including military electronics), trucks, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools
Industrial production growth rate:
2.4% (2002)
Electricity - production:
13.69 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 35.2%
hydro: 27.3%
other: 0.7% (2001)
nuclear: 36.8%
Electricity - consumption:
13.83 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports:
3 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports:
4.1 billion kWh (2001)
Oil - production:
NA bbl/day
Oil - consumption:
53,300 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA (2001)
Oil - imports:
NA (2001)
Agriculture - products:
potatoes, hops, wheat, sugar beets, corn, grapes; cattle, sheep, poultry
Exports:
$10.3 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Exports - commodities:
manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food
Exports - partners:
Germany 26.0%, Italy 12.4%, Croatia 8.6%, Austria 7.4%, France 6.7% (2000)
Imports:
$11.1 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, food
Imports - partners:
Germany 19.6%, Italy 18.0%, France 10.8%, Austria 8.5%, Croatia 4.0% (2000)
Debt - external:
$7.9 billion (2001)
Economic aid - recipient:
ODA, $62 million (2000 est.)
Currency:
tolar (SIT)
Currency code:
SIT
Exchange rates:
tolars per US dollar - 240.248 (2002), 242.749 (2001), 222.656 (2000), 181.769 (1999), 166.134 (1998)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Slovenia
Telephones - main lines in use:
722,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
1 million (2000)
Telephone system:
general assessment: NA
domestic: 100% digital (2000)
international: NA
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 17, FM 160, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios:
805,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
48 (2001)
Televisions:
710,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
.si
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
11 (2000)
Internet users:
600,000 (2001)
Transportation Slovenia
Railways:
total: 1,201 km
standard gauge: 1,201 km 1.435-m gauge (499 km electrified) (2002)
Highways:
total: 19,586 km
paved: 17,745 km (including 249 km of expressways)
unpaved: 1,841 km (1998 est.)
Waterways:
NA
Pipelines:
crude oil 290 km; natural gas 305 km
Ports and harbors:
Izola, Koper, Piran
Airports:
16 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 5 (2002)
Military Slovenia
Military branches:
Slovenian Army (includes Air and Naval Forces)
Military manpower - military age:
19 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 520,037 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 413,453 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 13,704 (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$370 million (FY00)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
1.7% (FY00)
Transnational Issues Slovenia
Disputes - international:
parliamentarians are far from ratifying the Croatia-Slovenia land and maritime boundary agreement, which would have ceded most of Piran Bay and maritime access to Slovenia and several villages to Croatia
Illicit drugs:
minor transit point for cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe, and for precursor chemicals

This page was last updated on 1 August, 2003