From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
(12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries)
- Fourth through eighth crusades of western European kingdoms against Islam
- Fall of the Hohenstaufen dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors
- Mongols under Genghis Khan conquer and rule over most of Asia and Eastern Europe, establish Mongolian dynasty in China. Some Mongol leaders convert from Tantric Buddhism to Islam.
- Marco Polo and his family reach China
- James I of Aragon takes control of Balearic Islands and Valencia.
- Theravada overtakes Mahayana as the dominant form of Buddhism in Cambodia.
- Persian historian Rashid al-Din records eleven Buddhist texts circulating in Arabic translation.
- The Thai Kingdom of Sukothai is established, with Theravada Buddhism as the state religion. Later in the century it vassalises significant parts of modern Thailand, Laos, Burma, and Malaysia.
- Alexander of Hales, philosopher and theologian
- Albertus Magnus, German philosopher and theologian
- Thomas Aquinas, theologian
- Francis of Assisi, founder of the Franciscan order
- Roger Bacon, Franciscan, philosopher, and scientist
- Bonaventure, Franciscan theologian
- Petrus Peregrinus, scientist
- Robert Grosseteste, English statesman and theologian
- Louis IX of France, St. Louis, French king and crusader
- Frederick II, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
- Dante, Italian writer
- Ramon Llull, Majorcan philosopher