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Wikipedia: Croatia
Croatia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The Republic of Croatia is a country in Europe bordering the Mediterranean, Central Europe and the Balkans. Its capital is Zagreb, and it is a former republic of Yugoslavia.

Republika Hrvatska
(Details) (Details)
National motto: None
Official language Croatian
Capital Zagreb
President Stjepan Mesić
Prime Minister Ivo Sanader
Area
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 123rd
56,542 km²
0.01%
Population
 - Total (2003)
 - Density
Ranked 119th
4,422,248
83/km²
Independence 1991
Currency kuna
Time zone UTC +1
National anthem Lijepa naša domovino
Internet TLD .hr
Calling Code 385

History

Main article: History of Croatia

Croats are a Slavic people probably with origins in ancient Persia, who migrated from areas of what is today's Galicia and settled in present-day Croatia during the 7th century. After a period of self-rule, in 1102 Croatians agreed to submit themselves to Hungarian authority. By the mid-1400s, the Hungarian kingdom was gravely impacted by the Ottoman expansion which led the Croatian Parliament to invite the Habsburgs, under Ferdinand I, to assume control over Croatia. Habsburg rule eventually did prove to be successful in thwarting the Ottomans, and by the 18th century, much of Croatia was free of Turkish control, while Dalmatia was under Venice.

In 1868, Croatia gained domestic autonomy while remaining under Hungarian authority. Following World War I and the demise of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Croatia joined the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (which became Yugoslavia in 1929). Yugoslavia was invaded during World War II and Croatia was made into a fascist puppet-state named the Independent State of Croatia. After the defeat of the Axis powers, Yugoslavia became a federal independent socialist state under the strong hand of Josip Broz Tito.

Although Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, it took four years of sporadic and often bitter fighting before occupying Serb armies were mostly cleared from Croatian lands. Under UN supervision, the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998.

Politics

Main article: Politics of Croatia

Since the adoption of the 1990 Constitution, Croatia has been a parliamentary democracy.

The President of the Republic (Predsjednik Republike) is head of state and elected for a five-year term. In addition to being the commander in chief of the armed forces, the president propose the Prime minister who is appointed by the consent of Parliament.

The Croatian Parliament (Hrvatski Sabor) is a unicameral legislative body of up to 160 representatives, all elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms. The Sabor meets twice a year--from January 15 to July 15 and from September 15 to December 15.

The Government (Vlada) is headed by the Prime minister who has 2 deputy prime ministers and 14 ministers in charge of particular sectors of activity. The executive branch is responsible for proposing legislation and a budget, executing the laws, and guiding the foreign and internal policies of the republic.

Croatia has a three-tiered judicial system, consisting of the Supreme Court, county courts, and municipal courts. The Constitutional Court rules on matters regarding the Constitution.

Counties

Main article: Counties of Croatia

Croatia is divided into 20 counties and one city*:

  1. Zagrebačka
  2. Krapinsko-zagorska
  3. Sisačko-moslavačka
  4. Karlovačka
  5. Varaždinska
  6. Koprivničko-križevačka
  7. Bjelovarsko-bilogorska
  8. Primorsko-goranska
  9. Ličko-senjska
  10. Virovitičko-podravska
  11. Požeško-slavonska
  12. Brodsko-posavska
  13. Zadarska
  14. Osječko-baranjska
  15. Šibensko-kninska
  16. Vukovarsko-srijemska
  17. Splitsko-dalmatinska
  18. Istarska
  19. Dubrovačko-neretvanska
  20. Međimurska
  21. Grad Zagreb*

See also: List of cities in Croatia

Geography

Main article: Geography of Croatia

Croatia is situated between central, southern and eastern Europe, because it has a rather peculiar shape that resembles a crescent or a horseshoe. Its terrain is diverse, containing:

Croatia has a mixture of climates. In the north and east it is continental, Mediterranean along the coast and a semi-highland and highland climate in the south-central region.

Economy

Main article: Economy of Croatia

Croatia has a post-communist economy based mostly on various services and some, mostly light industry. Tourism is a notable source of income.

Main problems include massive structural unemployment followed by the lack of economic reforms, deterred by public resistance. Of particular concern is the gravely backlogged judiciary system combined with inefficient public administration, especially involving land ownership. These and other factors reduce the investment competitiveness and prevent faster economic growth towards the favourable conditions of the late 1980s.

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Croatia

Croatia is inhabited mostly by Croats. Minority groups include Serbs, Bosniaks, Hungarians and others. The demographic transition is completed -- the natural growth rate is minute. Life expectancy and literacy rates are reasonably high.

The predominate religion is Catholicism, with some Orthodox and Sunni Muslim minorities.

The official and common language, Croatian, is a South Slavic language, using the Roman script.

Culture

Main article: Culture of Croatia

Croat culture is based on thirteen century long history during which many monumental buildings and even monumental cities such as Dubrovnik or Split have been built and are now tourist attractions. Croatia includes six World Heritage sites and eight national parks. Interestingly enough, Croatia also has an place in the history of neckwear as the origin of the necktie (cravat). The national coat of arms resembles the pattern on an autochthonic flower called kockavica.

The country prides itself in artists the likes of Ivan Meštrović, physicists like Ruđer Bošković and Nikola Tesla, Nobel prize winning chemists Lavoslav Ružička and Vladimir Prelog, writer Ivo Andrić. It was also home to notable inventors such as Eduard Slavoljub Penkala (ink pen), Ivan Vukičević-Lupis (torpedo), Faust Vrančić (parachute). Last but not the least, there's the endured Parliament with champions like Stjepan Radić and Ante Trumbić.

See also:

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Holidays
Date English Name Local Name Remarks
January 1 New Year's Day Nova Godina
January 6 Epiphany Bogojavljenje
... Easter Sunday and Monday Uskrs i Uskršnji ponedjeljak variable date
May 1 May Day Međunarodni praznik rada
60 days post Easter Corpus Christi Tjelovo variable date
June 22 Anti-fascist resistance day Dan antifašističke borbe
June 25 Statehood day Dan državnosti
August 5 Victory day and Homeland gratitude day Dan pobjede i Dan domovinske zahvalnosti
August 15 Our Lady's assumption into Heaven Velika Gospa
October 8 Independence day Dan nezavisnosti
November 1 All Saints day Dan svih svetih
December 25 Christmas Božić
December 26 Saint Stephen Sveti Stjepan

Note: Citizens of the Republic of Croatia that celebrate different religious holidays have the right not to work on those dates. This includes Christians that celebrate Christmas on January 7th per Julian calendar, Muslims on the days of Ramadan Bayram and Kurban Bayram, and Jews on the days of Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur.

Miscellaneous topics

External links

General

Science and Education

Culture-related


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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 
Modified by Geona