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Wikipedia: Egypt
Egypt
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about Egypt in the Middle East. For other uses of the word Egypt see Egypt (disambiguation).


Egypt (Arabic: مصر Misr) is a large nation of northeastern Africa. It includes the Sinai Peninsula, possibly considered part of Asia. The main area of habitation is along the Nile river. Large areas of land are part of the Sahara Desert and very sparsely inhabited. The capital city is Cairo (القاهرة).

جمهوريّة مصرالعربيّة
Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
Arab Republic of Egypt
(In Detail)
Official language Arabic
Capital Cairo
Largest City Cairo
President Hosni Mubarak
Prime MinisterAtef Ebeid
Area
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 29th
1,001,450 kmē
0.6%
Population
 - Total (2002)
 - Density
Ranked 15th
70,712,345
71/km²
Independence
 - Granted
by the United Kingdom
February 28, 1922
(Year)
Currency Egyptian pound (EGP)
Time zone UTC +2 (EET)
National anthem Bilady, Bilady, Bilady
Internet TLD.EG
Calling Code20

History

Main articles: History of Egypt

For the origin of the name Egypt, see Aegyptus.

The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world's great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 BC and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 BC, who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines.

It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517.

Following the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869, Egypt became an important world transportation hub, but also fell heavily into debt. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egypt's government in 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914.

Partially independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty following World War II.

See also:

Politics

Main article:
Politics of Egypt

Egypt is a republic. Hosni Mubarak, has been President since October 14, 1981.

Governorates

Main article: Governorates of Egypt

Egypt is divided into 26 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah):

Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah, As Suways, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id, Dumyat, Janub Sina', Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina', Suhaj.

Geography

Main article:
Geography of Egypt

Other towns and cities include Alexandria, Aswan, Asyut, El-Mahalla El-Kubra, Giza, Hurghada, Luxor, Kom Ombo, Port Safaga, Port Said, Sharm el Sheikh, Shubra-El-Khema, Suez, Zagazig.

Rivers include: Nile

Deserts: Egypt includes parts of the Sahara Desert and of the Libyan Desert

Oasis include: Siwa Oasis

Egypt borders on Lybia on west, on Sudan on south and on Israel on the north-east. It controls the Suez Canal between Mediterranian and Red Sea.

Economy

Main article: Economy of Egypt

The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society.

The government has struggled to ready the economy for the new millennium through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure.

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Egypt

Egypt is the most populous Arab country, at about 70,000,000 people. Nearly all the population is concentrated along the River Nile, notably Alexandria and Cairo, and along the Nile Delta and near the Suez Canal.

Culture

Main article: Culture of Egypt

Miscellaneous topics


Countries of the world  |  Africa

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 
Modified by Geona