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  Wikipedia: English verbs

Wikipedia: English verbs
English verbs
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

A typical English verb has five principal parts:

an infinitive:         (to) write
a third person form:   writes 
a present participle:  writing
a preterite:           wrote
a past participle:     written

In English, only strong verbs like write may have all five distinct parts; in weak verbs, the preterite and past participle are identical, e.g. bake, bakes, baking, baked, baked. The highly irregular verb to be has eleven forms: be, am, art, is, are, being, was, wast, were, been, wert, although art, wast, and wert, forms used with thou, are archaic and obsolete.

Most of the strong verbs that survive in modern English are considered to be "irregular verbs". Irregular verbs in English come from several historical sources; some are technically strong verbs (i.e. their forms display specific vowel changes of the type known as ablaut in linguistics); others have had various phonetic changes or contractions added to them over the history of English.

The uses of the principal parts of the English forms are:

Infinitive and basic form

Formation

The infinitive in English is the naked root form of the word. When it is being used as a verbal noun, the particle to is usually prefixed to it. When the infinitive stands as the predicate of an auxiliary verb, to may be omitted, depending on the requirements of the idiom.

Uses

Third person singular

Formation

The third person singular in regular verbs in English is distinguished by the suffix -s. In English spelling, this -s is added to the stem of the infinitive form: run > runs

If the base ends in a sibilant sound like /s/, /z/, /S/, /tS/ (see SAMPA) that is not preceded by a silent E, the suffix is written -es: buzz > buzzes; catch > catches

If the base ends in a consonant plus y, change the y to i and add -es: cry > cries

Verbs ending in o typically add -es: veto > vetoes

Use

Present participle

Formation

The present participle is typically made by the suffix -ing: go > going

If the base ends in silent E, it is dropped before adding the suffix: believe > believing

If the e is not silent, it is retained: agree > agreeing

If:

then the final consonant is doubled before adding the suffix: set > setting; forget > forgetting; yodel > yodelling

If the final consonant of a word subject to the doubling rule is -c, that consonant is doubled as -ck: panic > panicking

Irregular forms include:

Uses

Preterite

Formation

In weak verbs, the preterite is formed with the suffix -ed: work > worked

If the base ends in e, -d is simply added to it: hone > honed; dye > dyed

Where the base ends in a consonant plus y, the y changes to i before the -ed is added; deny > denied

Where the base ends in a vowel plus y, the y is retained: alloy > alloyed

The rule for doubling the final consonant in regular weak verbs for the preterite is the same as the rule for doubling in the present participle; see above.

Many strong verbs and other irregular verbs form the preterite differently, for which see that article.

Use

Past participle

Formation

In regular weak verbs, the past participle is always the same as the preterite.

Irregular verbs may have separate preterites and past participles; see the article on English irregular verbs.

Uses

Tenses of the English verb

English verbs, like those in many other western European languages, have more tenses than forms; tenses beyond the ones possible with the five forms listed above are formed with auxiliary verbs, as are the passive voice forms of these verbs. Important auxiliary verbs in English include will, used to form the future tense, shall, formerly used for the future tense, but now used mostly for commands and directives; be, have, and do, which are used to form the supplementary tenses of the English verb, to add aspect to the actions they describe, or for negation.

English verbs display complex forms of negation. While simple negation was used well into the period of early Modern English (Touch not the royal person!) in contemporary English negation almost always requires that the negative particle be attached to an auxiliary verb such as do or be. *I go not is archaic; I don't go or I am not going are what contemporary idiom requires.

English exhibits similar idiomatic complexity with the interrogative mood, which in Indo-European languages is not strictly speaking a mood. Like many other Western European languages, English historically allowed questions to be asked by inverting the position of verb and subject: Whither goest thou? Now, in English, questions are trickily idiomatic, and require the use of auxiliary verbs.

The full repertoire of tense in English verbs is:

Simple present

Note that the "simple present" in idiomatic English is not a simple present. It typically has an imperfective aspect, identifying habitual or customary action:

He writes about beavers (understanding that he does so all the time.)

It can also have a future meaning:

She goes to Milwaukee on Tuesday.

Put Tuesday in the plural, and She goes to Milwaukee on Tuesdays means that she goes to Milwaukee every Tuesday.

Intensive present with do

  • Affirmative: He does write
  • Negative: He does not (doesn't) write
  • Interrogative: Does he write?
  • Negative interrogative: Does he not write? (Doesn't he write?)

The intensive present with do is identical to the simple present except in the affirmative. It is typically used as a response to the question Does he write, whether that question is expressed or implied, and says that indeed, he does write.

Present imperfect with be

This form describes the simple engagement in a present activity, without any implication of habitual or future action. Word order differs here in the negative interrogative between the hyperformal is he not writing and the usual isn't he writing?

Preterite

The same change of word order in the negative interrogative that distinguishes the formal and informal register also applies to the preterite. Note also that the preterite form is also used only in the affirmative. When the sentence is recast as a negative or interrogative, he wrote not and wrote he? are archaic and not used in modern English. They must instead be supplied by periphrastic forms.

Perfect

  • Affirmative: He has written
  • Negative: He has not written
  • Interrogative: Has he written?
  • Negative interrogative: Has he not written? (Hasn't he written?)

The perfect differs from the preterite only in the affirmative.

Past imperfect

Past perfect

  • Affirmative: He had written
  • Negative: He had not / hadn't written
  • Interrogative: Had he written?
  • Negative interrogative: Had he not written? (Hadn't he written?)

Pluperfect

  • Affirmative: He had been writing
  • Negative: He had not been / hadn't been writing
  • Interrogative: Had he been writing?
  • Negative interrogative: Had he not been writing? (Hadn't he been writing?)

Future

  • Affirmative: He will write
  • Negative: He will not / won't write
  • Interrogative: Will he write?
  • Negative interrogative: Will he not write? (Won't he write?)

Future imperfect

  • Affirmative: He will be writing
  • Negative: He will not / won't be writing
  • Interrogative: Will he be writing?
  • Negative interrogative: Will he not be writing? (Won't he be writing?)

Future perfect

  • Affirmative: He will have written
  • Negative: He will not / won't have written
  • Interrogative: Will he have written?
  • Negative interrogative: Will he not have written? (Won't he have written?)

  

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 
Modified by Geona