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  Wikipedia: Italian language

Wikipedia: Italian language
Italian language
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Italian is a Romance language spoken by about 62 million people, most of whom live in Italy. Standard Italian is based on Tuscan dialects and is somewhat intermediate between the languages of Southern Italy and the Gallo-Romance languages of the North. Italian has double (or long) consonants, like Latin (but unlike most modern Romance languages, e.g. French and Spanish). As in most Romance languages (with the notable exception of French), stress is distinctive.

Italian (Italiano)
Spoken in:Italy and 29 other countries
Region:Region
Total speakers: 55 Million
Ranking:27
Genetic
classification:
Indo-European
 Italic
  Romance
   Italo-Western
    Italo-Dalmatian
     Italian
Official status
Official language of:Italy, Switzerland, San Marino
Regulated by:Accademia della Crusca
Language codes
ISO 639-1: it
ISO 639-2:ita
SIL:ITN

History

Standard Italian is derived from the dialects of Tuscany. Of the major Romance languages, which were derived from Latin language, Italian is the closest to Latin, although there are other langauges spoken in Italy which are even closer to Latin, for example Sardo logudorese language.

Italians say that the best spoken Italian is lingua Toscana in bocca Romana - 'the Tuscan tongue, in a Roman mouth.' The formative influence on establishing the Tuscan as the elite speech is generally agreed to have been Dante's Commedia, to which Boccaccio affixed the title Divina in the 14th century.

The economic power that Tuscany had at the time, specially considering Pisa's influence, gave its dialect weight, though Venetian remained widespread in the markets and streets of the Terra Firma. Also, the increasing cultural relevance of Florence in the period of Umanesimo (before Rinascimento) made its vulgare become a standard in art, quickly imported to Rome.

Classification

Italian is a member of the Italo-Dalmatian group of languages, which is part of the Italo-Western grouping of the Romance languages, which are a subgroup of the Italic branch of Indo-European.

Geographic distribution

Italian is the official language of Italy, San Marino and an official language in the Ticino and Grigioni cantons or regions of Switzerland. It is also the second official language in Vatican City and in some areas of Istria in Slovenia and Croatia with Italian minority. It is widely used by immigrant groups in Luxembourg, the United States, and Australia, and is also spoken in neighbouring Malta. It is spoken, to a much lesser extent, in parts of Africa formerly under Italian rule such as Somalia, Libya and Eritrea.

Official status

Italian is an official language of Italy, San Marino, Switzerland, and the Vatican.

Dialects

The dialects of Italian identified by the Ethnologue are Tuscan, Abruzzese, Pugliese, Umbrian, Laziale, Central Marchigiano, Cicolano-Reatino-Aquilano, and Molisano. Many of the so-called "dialects" of Italian spoken in Italy are different enough from standard Italian that they are considered to be separate languages by most linguists.

Sounds

Description of the sound set of the language. Can include phoneme charts and example words for each phoneme like in French language. If there is significant discussion here, it is probably best to divide the section into vowels and consonants subsections.

Vowels

Italian has five vowel phonemes: /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, and /u/. The mid vowels, /e/, and /o/ have lowered allophones [E] and [O] in closed syllables, syllables that end with a consonant and not a vowel.

Consonants

{| border=2 cellpadding=2 ! !bilabial !labiodental !dental !alveolar !palato-alveolar !palatal !velar |- !plosive |p b | |t d | | | |k g |- !nasal |m | |n | | |ɲ |ŋ |- !trill | | | |r | | | |- !flap | | | |ɾ | | | |- !fricative | |f v |s z | |ʃ | | |- !affricate | | | | |tʃ dʒ | | |- !lateral | | |l | | |ʎ | |}

Italian has geminate, or double, consonants, which are distinguished by length. Length is distinctive for all consonants except for the palatals, /z/, and the palato-alveloar fricative /S/. Geminate plosives and affricates are realized as lengthened closures. Geminate fricatives, nasals, and /l/ are realized as lengthened continuants. Geminate /r/ is realized as the trill [r]. ,

Grammar

Pronouns

Personal pronouns in the subject of a sentence are usually unnecessary in Italian, because the verb ending provides information about the subject (apart some exceptions), and hence the pronouns are used only to emphasize the subject.

Singular Plural
1st Person io - I noi - we
2nd Person tu - you (one person, familiar) voi - you (plural, familiar)
3rd Person lei - she
Lei - you (one person, polite)
lui - he
loro - they
Loro - you (plural, polite)

Lei and Loro (sometimes written with a capitalized L) have special meaning in addition to their meanings as "she" and "they". Lei is the polite form of tu (which is only used for individuals one is familiar with, family members, for children, or for praying to a god), and similarly, Loro is the polite form of voi (but voi or Voi too is a polite form).

Verbs

Italian verb infinitives have one of three endings, either -are, -ere, or -ire. Most Italian verbs are regular.

Questions are formed by a rising intonation at the end of the sentence, as in most European languages (see examples below).

Present Indicative Regular Conjugation Patterns

This is the basic conjugation pattern used to indicate that something is occurring now.

-are Singular Plural
1st Person -o -iamo
2nd Person -i -ate
3rd Person -a -ano

Example: mangiare, "to eat".

Io mangio. (or just Mangio.) I eat.
Antonio mangia. Antonio eats.
Antonio mangia? Does Antonio eat?
Mangia Antonio? Does Antonio eat?

guardare, "to watch"
Noi guardiamo la televisione. (or just Guardiamo la televisione.) We watch television.

-ere Singular Plural
1st Person -o -iamo
2nd Person -i -ete
3rd Person -e -ono

Example: leggere, "to read"

Leggono i libri. They read books.
Leggo il giornale. I read the newspaper.

Some regular -ire verbs conjugate normally, and some conjugate according to the -isco pattern. There is no way to tell other than to memorize which are which.

-ire (normal form) Singular Plural
1st Person -o -iamo
2nd Person -i -ite
3rd Person -e -ono

Example: partire, "to leave"

Partite. You leave. (plural; used if talking to two or more persons one is familiar with.)
Parti. You leave. (singular; used if talking to only one person one is familiar with.)
Partono. Depending on context, could mean either You leave'\' (if addressing more than one person formally), or could also mean They leave.''

-ire (-isco form) Singular Plural
1st Person -isco -iamo
2nd Person -isci -ite
3rd Person -isce -iscono

Example: capire, "to understand".

Io capisco or just Capisco. "I understand."
Capisci? "Do you understand?"

Writing system

Italian is written using the Latin alphabet. Italian uses both acute accent and grave accent for marking words with irregular stress.

Examples

See Common phrases in different languages and Italian proverbs.

External links


  

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 
Modified by Geona