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  Wikipedia: Jamaica

Wikipedia: Jamaica
Jamaica
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the country. For others uses, see Jamaica (disambiguation).

Jamaica is an country in the Caribbean Sea, located south of Cuba and to the west of Hispaniola, on which Haiti and the Dominican Republic are situated.

\Jamaica
(In Detail)
National motto: Out of Many One People
Official languageEnglish
Capital Kingston
Queen Elizabeth II
Governor General Howard Cooke
Prime Minister Percival James Patterson
Area
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 159st
10,991 km²
1.5
Population
 - Total
 - Density
Ranked 135th
2,695,867 (July 2003)
245/km²
Independence
 - Date
From the UK
August 6, 1962
Currency Dollar
Time zone UTC -5
National anthem Jamaica, Land We Love
Internet TLD.JM
Calling Code1-876

History

Main article: History of Jamaica

The name of the country derives from the name Xamayca, meaning land of wood and water, given to it by the original Arawak people from South America, who first settled there around the year 1000.

Jamaica was first claimed for Spain after Christopher Columbus discovered it in 1494. Columbus used it as his family's private estate. The British seized the island in 1670. Under the first 200 years of British rule, Jamaica became the world's largest sugar exporting nation, which was achieved through the massive use of imported African slave labor.

Britain's over-zealousness in using slavery soon backfired, and by the start of the 19th century, blacks outnumbered whites to a rate of almost 20 to one. A series of revolts followed, and in 1838 slavery was formally abolished.

Over the years Jamaica slowely gained independence from Britain, and in 1958 Jamaica became a province in an independent nation called the Federation of the West Indies. Jamaica separated from the federation in 1962 and is now a completely sovereign nation.

Deteriorating economic conditions during the 1970s led to recurrent violence and a drop-off in tourism.

Politics

Main article: Politics of Jamaica

Jamaica is a constitutional monarchy, the head of state being the monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. The monarch's representative in Jamaica is the Governor-General, who fills the role of approving bills, and other state functions. For the most part, the monarch (through her representative, the Governor-General) is a figurehead, and what little real power she has reserved for times of crisis. Republican sentiment has grown in Jamaica in recent years, and the monarchy is likely to be abolished.

The Jamaican Parliament is divided into two parts, the House of Representatives and the Senate. House members are directly elected, and the leader of the majority party in the house becomes the Prime Minister. The Senate is appointed by the Prime Minister, and the parliamentary Opposition leader.

Jamaica operates under a two party system, with the People's National Party and Jamaican Labour Party often switching power.

Parishes

Main article: Parishes of Jamaica

Jamaica is divided into 14 parishes, viz.:

  • Clarendon
  • Hanover
  • Kingston
  • Manchester
  • Portland
  • Saint Andrew
  • Saint Ann
  • Saint Catherine
  • Saint Elizabeth
  • Saint James
  • Saint Mary
  • Saint Thomas
  • Trelawny
  • Westmoreland

Geography

Main article:
Geography of Jamaica

The island of Jamaica has mountainous inlands surrounded by a narrow coastal plain. For this reason, all major cities are located on the coast. Chief towns include the capital Kingston and Montego Bay.

The climate in Jamaica is tropical, with hot and humid weather, although the inlands have a more temperate climate.

Economy

Main article: Economy of Jamaica

Jamaica's economy is heavily based on bauxite exports and tourism.

Serious problems include: high interest rates; increased foreign competition; the weak financial condition of business in general resulting in receiverships or closures and downsizings of companies; the shift in investment portfolios to non-productive, short-term high yield instruments; a pressured, sometimes sliding, exchange rate; a widening merchandise trade deficit; and a growing internal debt for government bailouts to various ailing sectors of the economy, particularly the financial sector.

Depressed economic conditions in 1999 led to increased civil unrest, including a mounting crime rate.

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Jamaica

Jamaica is almost entirely black, with the majority of the population being descendants of African-imported slaves. There is a significant minority of Asian and Indian immigrants, as well as many people of mixed racial background.Whites compose a tiny minority, less than 1% of the population. However, they have historically played a large role in the nation's political and economic development.

The official language is English, although the patois form Jamaican English is widely spoken. About two-thirds of the Jamaicans are Christians, although spread over a large number of denominations. The remaining third adheres various other religions, including local faiths.

Culture

Main articles: Culture of Jamaica, Music of Jamaica

Though a small nation, Jamaica is rich in culture, and has a strong global presence.

The musical genres reggae and ska originated in Jamaica. Bob Marley, perhaps the best known reggae musician, was born in Jamaica, and is very respected.

The Rastafarian faith also originated in Jamaica, and is responsible for many well-known Jamaican cultural exports such as dreadlocks and red-yellow-and-green clothing.

Miscellaneous topics

External links


  

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 
Modified by Geona