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  Wikipedia: Non-sexist language

Wikipedia: Non-sexist language
Non-sexist language
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Non-sexist or gender-neutral language is writing or speech which avoids perpetuating what is perceived as sexism.

Calling this type of language "non-sexist language" is a loaded term, as it implies that failure to use this type of language is automatically sexist. Less loaded terms, such as sex-neutral or gender-neutral, are not as common.

Common positions

Views on 'non-sexist language' can be split into approximately four groups:

  1. People who believe that 'non-sexist language' is a good thing, use it themselves, and try to enforce it on everyone else. These people often argue passionately for non-sexist language at every opportunity.
  2. People who believe that 'non-sexist language' is a good thing, use it themselves, but do not wish to enforce it on everyone else. These people may try to persuade others of the merits of 'non-sexist language', but are generally less vehement in their arguments.
  3. People who believe that non-sexist language is neither good nor bad. These people sometimes use 'non-sexist language', and sometimes use more traditional forms of expression.
  4. People who believe that 'non-sexist language' is a bad thing, and do not use it themselves. These people may try to persuade others of the problems with 'non-sexist language', with more or less vehemence.

History

Many of the modern masculine terms in use today originated as gender neutral terms in Old English. For example, the word 'man' was originally gender neutral and qualified to specify male or female. While the male qualification died out, the female wíf (which produced woman) survived, leaving 'man' with both its original gender-neutral meaning (people) and its gender-specific meaning, male.

The same sort of thing has historically happened in other languages. The word homo was sex-neutral in Classical Latin. Its descendants such as French homme, Italian uomo, Spanish hombre are specifically male; while in Romanian "om" is gender-neutral. But the derived adjectives humain etc. mean human as in English.

Awareness of the social effects of language was largely a 20th century phenomenon in the English-speaking world, and has been linked to the development of the Principle of Linguistic Relativity by Benjamin Whorf and others. However, a program to rid Norwegian of sexist presuppositions dates from the mid 19th century and remains an ongoing part of Norwegian culture.

Add later history here

Disputed issues

There are a wide range of disputed issues in the debate over 'non-sexist language'. Are there inherently sexist language forms, and if so, what are they? If they exist, should they be changed? If they should be changed, how should this be achieved?

Are some uses of language inherently sexist?

Advocates of 'non-sexist language', including many feminists, argue that traditional language fails to reflect the presence of women in society adequately. In general, they complain about a number of issues:

  • Over-use of what they consider to be exclusively gender-specific pronouns like "he".
  • Use of "man" to refer to all people.
  • Over-use of gender-specific job titles.
  • Use of Miss and Mrs. (see Ms).
  • non-parallel usage, such as "man and wife".
  • Stereotypical words such as virile and ladylike

Advocates of 'non-sexist language' see various problems with these uses:
  • They marginalize women and create the impression of a male-dominated society.
  • They can be patronising, for example treating women only as marriage material
  • They can perpetuate stereotypes about the "correct" way for a man or woman to behave.

Opponents of non-sexist language do not accept these arguments as valid.
  • Some regard the whole thing as "political correctness gone mad", as the 1980s British satirical show Spitting Image ridiculed it.
  • Some people believe that while these usages may, on the surface, appear gender-biased, in practice most people think of them and use them as gender-neutral.
  • Some people disagree with feminism and argue that men and women differ enough that these differences are rightly embedded in the language. In this context, see masculism.
  • Grammatically speaking, "he" and its derivatives are often used for gender neutral purposes

A deeper variant of these arguments involves the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis, the suggestion that our language shapes our thought processes and that in order to eliminate sexism we would do well to eliminate "sexist" forms from our language. Some feminists dismiss the effectiveness of such a suggestion, viewing 'non-sexist language' as irrelevant window-dressing which merely hides sexist attitudes rather than changing them.

Enforcement, persuasion, or evolution?

A tiny minority of advocates for non-sexist language argue that these "sexist" usages should be banned. It is unclear how this would be achieved. Hate speech legislation does exist in some countries, but applies to much more clear-cut and widely accepted cases of perceived prejudice.

The majority of advocates for 'non-sexist language' wish to proceed by persuasion rather than enforcement. One tool of this persuasion is creating guidelines (see below) that indicate how they believe language should be used. Another tool is simply to make use of 'non-sexist language' oneself, and lead by example.

In addition to those who oppose any change, some opponents of 'non-sexist language' argue that a change in language should evolve organically from changing public attitudes towards gender issues, rather than be achieved either by enforcement, or by persuasion.

Neologising

While some terms, such as firefighter and singular they, are sometimes denigrated by opponents as neologisms, they in fact have a long history that predates the women's liberation movement. At other times new terms have indeed been created, such as Ms or womyn. The issue is confused by satirists who invent extreme examples of the supposed consequences of 'non-sexist language', such as epersoncipation.

Some critics accuse advocates of non-sexist language of "re-gendering" language, replacing masculine in some cases by feminine terms that are equally sexist. Other critics argue that non-sexist language violates the rules of proper grammar and style.

Guidelines

Many different authorities have presented guidelines on whether, and if so and where, to use 'non-sexist language'. Wikipedia is not a style guide, so we present a selection of such sources here.

Many dictionaries, stylebooks, and some authoritative guides now counsel the writer to follow the new guidelines.

These guidelines, though accepted by many, remain in some contexts controversial, and are applied to differing degrees among English speakers worldwide. often reflecting different cultures and language structure, for example American English in contrast to British English. They are also impacted upon, depending on whether a person uses English as their first language or as a second language, regional variants or whether their form of English is based on grammatical structures inherited from a no longer widely used other language (for example, Hiberno-English) or owes its linguistic structure to earlier Old English or Elizabethan English. In these cases, language structure from their native tongue or linguistic inheritance may enter into their terminology.

Non-sexist language in other languages

The situation of 'non-sexist' usage is very different in languages that have masculine and feminine grammatical gender, such as French, German, and Spanish, simply because it is impossible to construct a gender-neutral sentence the way it can be done in English. For example, in French, the masculine gender supersedes the feminine; la femme et l'homme (the woman and the man) has the pronoun ils (they-masculine).

Accordingly, most of the focus has been on more concrete problems such as job titles. Due to the presence of grammatical gender, the strategy is the exact opposite of that of English: creating feminine job titles rather than eliminating them. This is based on the idea that it is insulting to call a woman (for example) le médecin (the (masculine) doctor), as if she changed sex or became somehow more mannish when she went to work.

Finnish

Finnish has only gender-neutral pronouns (it totally lacks grammatical gender) and hän is used always when talking about he or she. It distinguishes however between persons and things.

French

See also the French version of this article

In French, feminine job titles are created by adding -e (l'avocate), -eure (la docteure), -euse (la travailleuse), -esse (la mairesse), or nothing in some cases such as -iste or -logue (la psychologue). More generally, "non-sexist" styles can include the use of brackets or capital letters to insert feminine endings (étudiant(e)s or étudiantEs) or repeat gendered words (toutes et tous, citoyennes et citoyens).

Words that formerly referred to a dignitary's wife (l'ambassadrice) can be used to refer to a woman in that position; this, like other "non-sexist" forms, is much more common in Quebec than in France. Although the marriage titles have mainly dropped out of use, many cite the possible confusion as a reason for continuing to use such as Madame le Président or Madame l'ambassadeur. For this reason, these remain the most frequent, at least in France.

Spanish

In Spanish, it is usually quite easy to change an -o to an -a, or to add an -a to an ending such as -or (la camarera, la doctora). Other endings can be left alone or changed (la juez but la alcaldesa). -ista is left alone. (One problem is el policía, "police officer", since la policía means "the police force". The only useful feminine term is la mujer policía.) A fashion current in Spain is to use the at sign (@) to replace -o or -a, especially in political writing (¡Ciudadan@s!)

German

In German, creating a feminine job title is usually done by adding -in to the word in question. It is impossible to distinguish a male form. For example, the general term for computer scientist is Informatiker. The male form is unchanged: Informatiker. The female form, however, is distinguished by adding -in giving Informatikerin.

Job descriptions in job adverts are usually formulated addressing both sexes (Informatiker oder Informatikerin). Sometimes a form of contraction with capitalization inside the word is used ("InformatikerIn"), which is considered by some people as a corruption of the language, especially if it is overdone by creating feminine forms of gender neutral words (for example a German feminist who called a group of non-feminist women Arschlöcherinnen - female assholes). The use of slashes is commonplace, too, such as in Informatiker/in.

German has distinguished forms of pronouns for her and him. The use of pronouns is non-discriminatory since it distinguishes both sexes in a consequent manner rather than marking only the feminine as it is done with job titles.

The use of the language reflects a domination of the male over the female. There are fixed phrases where the male form comes first, such as man and woman (Mann und Frau). The use of Fräulein to address young women is very uncommon these days, but it lacks a male counterpart. While "herrlich" ("Herr" means Mister, Sir, Lord, God) has the meaning of marvellous, magnificent, splendid, "dämlich" ("Dame" means Lady) means "stupid, silly".

external link

The swiss weekly newspaper WOZ - Die Wochenzeitung edits all published articles to non-sexist language.

Esperanto

Esperanto has no grammatical gender. However, for some categories of nouns such as terms for people, animals, and kin, a masculine real gender is considered generic, and femaleness has to be made explicit by use of the -in suffix. Hence patro is father, but patrino is mother. The fact that the female forms in -ino look like diminutives to speakers of some languages only makes things worse.

Plural nouns indicating both genders together can be formed with the prefix ge- (e.g. gepatroj, meaning parents). Some people extend this to using ge- with singular nouns to denote someone of unspecified sex (e.g. gepatro for parent), but this was not used by L. L. Zamenhof, the creator of the language, and some speakers consider it grammatically incorrect.

In Zamenhof's formulation of the language, nouns denoting persons refer to males by default. For example, an amiko is a male friend; a female friend must be referred to as an amikino. Many modern speakers do not do this, seeing it as sexist; they use, for example, amiko to mean a friend of either sex, only specifying the sex if it is relevant, using -in for female and the prefix vir- (or, in one proposal, the suffix -iĉ-) for male. This is more common among those whose first language has no sex-related grammatical gender, such as English and Chinese, than among those whose first language does, such as French or German. Therefore some proponents of this usage suggest that it is more appropriate in Esperanto since it lacks grammatical gender.

Like English, Esperanto has gender-specific pronouns in the third person singular (li, ŝi, and ĝi). Canonical usage is for li to be a generic male in a similar way to English he, though this is increasingly uncommon as it is in English. Nonsexist usage can include such constructions as li aŭ ŝi ("he or she"), the correlative pronoun tiu ("that person"), or a number of rather marginal neologisms such as ŝli or ri.

External links

Hebrew

In Hebrew, which has a high degree of grammatical gender, virtually every noun (as well as pronoun of second and third degree) is attributed as either masculine or feminine. Therefore, there are laws constituted in Israel that require job ads to be written in a non-sexist form, often with a separator '/' (e.g. "dru'shim/ot", "maz'kir/a") to explicitly proclaim that the job is offered for both males and females equally.

Korean

Korean, like other languages in East Asia does not use pronouns in everyday language, because the meaning is clear in the context. In case of confusion, there are pronouns to clarify the position, but normally the actual subject (person) is used rather than the pronoun. As for job titles, these are not gender-specific. Again, the meaning is normally clear in the context.

Tamil

Tamil has a gender-neutral form for the third-person plural, which is also used for the third-person singular in all formal communication. Most job titles are derived from this form as they are mostly used in a formal context. They are thus gender-free.

Hungarian

Hungarian does not have gender-specific pronouns and lacks grammatical gender: referring to a gender needs explicit statement of "the man" (he) or "the woman" (she). "Ő" means "he/she" and "ők" means "they". Hungarian distincts persons and things, as you refer things as "az" (it) or "azok" (those).

Please add more languages and examples.

See also: gender role.


  

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 
Modified by Geona