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Wikipedia: Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a comprehensive multi-volume dictionary published by the Oxford University Press. The Oxford English Dictionary is generally regarded as the definitive dictionary of Modern English, especially British English. It has 2.5 million quotations under around 300,000 headwords.

Although a British institution, the Oxford English Dictionary has a policy of attempting to record all the known uses and variants of a word in the varieties of world English, even obscure and outdated ones, hence also lists American variants of spelling or meanings e.g., center.


It was originally published between February 1, 1884 and 1928, in over 100 instalments or "fascicles", under the title A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles (NED). After the last fascicles were released, the completed New English Dictionary was published in ten large volumes in 1928. In 1933, the New English Dictionary was republished in 12 volumes (the very large volumes 9 and 10 of the original New English Dictionary were each split into two smaller volumes but otherwise unchanged) under the new title Oxford English Dictionary. An additional (13th) volume was added at that time, containing definitions that had been written since the original fascicles were published. After 1933 additional supplemental volumes were added (1972, 1976, 1982, 1986), so the most complete First Edition-based sets have 16 volumes in all.

The first edition was reprinted in the 1980s in two volumes, with m type size. It was called the "compact edition" and was distributed through book clubs. It was packaged with a slipcover that held both volumes and a large magnifying glass to facilitate reading the small type.

The Second Edition (OED2) was published in print in 1989 and on CD-ROM, for the first time, in 1992. Pronunciation of headwords are illustrated by International Phonetic Alphabet instead of a personal symbolism of Editor James Murray. The compact version of the Second Edition (printed 9-up in a single volume, as opposed to the 4-up of the compact First Edition) was published in 1991.

Electronic versions

There have been three versions of the second edition CD-ROM released, each of which has updates and software changes over the previous versions. Version 1 (1992) had the same corpus as the printed Second Edition, and the CD itself was not copy-protected. Version 2 (1999) had some additions to the corpus, and updated software with improved searching features, but had extensive copy-protection that made it inconvenient to use. Version 3 (2002) has yet more words and software improvements, and its copy-protection is, though not completely removed, considerably less annoying than version 2's.

Since March 2000, the OED has been available online to subscribers. The online database contains the entire Second Edition and is also updated quarterly with revisions which will be included in the Third Edition (currently in preparation). It is the most up-to-date edition available. Common subscribers are large organizations, such as universities, some of which do not use the Oxford English Dictionary Online portal and have legally downloaded the entire database into the university library computers. Some public libraries and companies have subscribed as well. In 2004 a lower subscription rate was introduced for individuals, making it more affordable for home use (approx USD300 or GBP200200 per annum for individuals in 2004).


There were a number of editors over the 70 year course of preparing the First Edition. James Murray, who was editor from 1879, got the project off the ground after a slow start, but the scale of the project grew so much, as volunteer readers submitted new words and examples, that he did not live to see the project finished. Henry Bradley was the second editor from 1888 until his death. The dictionary's third editor was William Craigie, the fourth one C. T. Onions. One of its most prolific early contributors, Dr. W. C. Minor, was at the time imprisoned in a criminal lunatic asylum.

Later editors included Robert Burchfield, Edmund Weiner and John Simpson.


A Third Edition (the "New Edition", intended as a nearly complete overhaul) has been in preparation since 1990. Additions and updates towards this New Edition, along with the entire text of the Second Edition, can be viewed on the official website by subscription (see link below).


See also

Further Reading

  • Oxford English Dictionary, second edition, edited by John Simpson and Edmund Weiner, Clarendon Press, 1989, twenty volumes, hardcover, ISBN 0198611862
  • Caught in the Web of Words: James Murray and the Oxford English Dictionary, K. M. Elisabeth Murray, Yale University Press, 2001, trade paperback, ISBN 0300089198
  • Empire of Words, The Reign of the Oxford English Dictionary, John Willinsky, Princeton University Press, 1995, hardcover, ISBN 0691037191
  • The Meaning of Everything: The Story of the Oxford English Dictionary, Simon Winchester, Oxford University Press, 2003, hardcover, ISBN 0198607024

External links


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 
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