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Wikipedia: Paris
Paris
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For alternate uses of "Paris" see Paris (disambiguation).

Paris is the capital and largest city of France. The city is built on an arc of the River Seine, and is thus divided into two parts: the Right Bank to the north and the smaller Left Bank to the south. The river is well known for its tree-lined quays (walks along the river banks), open-air bookstalls and historic bridges that connect the Right and Left banks. Paris is also famous for its tree-lined boulevards such as the Champs-Élysées, and for its many architectural gems.

The city has about 2 million residents (1999 census: 2,147,857). The Greater Paris metropolitan area has about 11 million residents (1999 census: 11,174,743).

History

The historical nucleus of Paris is the Ile de la Cité, a small island largely occupied by the huge Palais de Justice and the Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris. It is connected with the smaller Ile Saint-Louis (another island) occupied by elegant houses built in the 17th and 18th centuries.


Flag of Paris

Paris was occupied by a Gallic tribe until the Romans arrived in 52 BC. The invaders referred to the previous occupants as the Parisii, but called their new city Lutetia, meaning "marshy place". About fifty years later the city had spread to the left bank of the Seine, now known as the Latin Quarter, and had been renamed "Paris".

Roman rule had ceased by 508, when Clovis the Frank made the city the capital of the Merovingian dynasty of the Franks. Viking invasions during the 800s forced the Parisians to build a fortress on the Ile de la Cité. In 845 Paris was sacked by Viking raiders, probably under Ragnar Lodbrok, who collected a huge ransom in exchange for leaving. The first French king, Odo, was chosen in this period.

During the 11th century the city spread to the Right Bank. In the 12th and 13th centuries, which included the reign of Philip II Augustus (1180-1223), the city grew strongly. Main thoroughfares were paved, the first Louvre was built as a fortress, and several churches, including the Cathedral of Notre-Dame, were constructed or begun. Several schools on the Left Bank were organized into the Sorbonne, which counts Albertus Magnus and St. Thomas Aquinas among its early scholars. In the Middle Ages Paris prospered as a trading and intellectual centre, interrupted temporarily when the Black Death struck in the 14th century. Under the reign of King Louis XIV, the Sun King, from 1643 to 1715, the royal residence was moved from Paris to nearby Versailles.

The French Revolution began with the storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789. Many of the conflicts in the next few years were between Paris and the outlying rural areas.

In 1870 the Franco-Prussian War ended in a siege of Paris and the Paris Commune, which surrendered in 1871 after a winter of famine and bloodshed. The Eiffel Tower, the best-known landmark in Paris, was built in 1889 in a period of prosperity known as La Belle Époque ("The Age of Beauty).

Historical population

1801: 547,800 inhabitants
1831: 714,000
1851: 1,053,000
1881: 2,240,000
1901: 2,661,000
1926: 2,871,000

Administration

The city of Paris is itself a département of France (Paris, 75), part of the Ile-de-France région. Paris is divided into twenty numerically organised districts, the arrondissements. These districts are numbered in a spiral pattern with the 1er arrondissement at the center of the city.

Prior to 1964, département 75 was "Seine", which contained the city and the surrounding suburbs. The change in boundaries resulted in the creation of 3 new départements forming a ring around Paris, often called la petite couronne (the little crown): Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-de-Marne.

Bertrand Delanoë is Paris Mayor since March 18, 2001.

Former mayors: Jacques Chirac, Jean Tiberi


Paris from the NASA Landsat 7 satellite. The River Seine winds its way through the center of the image. The gray and purple pixels are the urban areas. The patchwork of green, brown, tan and yellow surrounding the city is farmland. The details are better seen in this larger version

Geography

The altitude of Paris varies, with several prominent
hills :
  • Montmartre - 130 metres (425 feet) above sea level
  • Belleville - 115 metres (375 feet) above sea level
  • Menilmontant
  • Chaumont
  • Passy
  • Chaillot
  • Montagne Ste-Genevieve
  • Butte-aux-Cailles
  • Montparnasse (the hill there was levelled in the 18th century)

Transport

Paris is served by two principal airports: Orly Airport, which is south of Paris, and the international airport Charles De Gaulle International Airport in Roissy, France.

Paris is densely covered by a metro system, the Métro. This interconnects with a high-speed regional network, the RER, and also the train network: commuter lines, national train lines, and the TGV (named Thalys or Eurostar for specific destinations).

View from the Montparnasse Tower (Tour Montparnasse) towards the Eiffel Tower. On the right Napoleon's tomb lies under the golden dome at Les Invalides. The towers of the office and entertainment centre La Defense line the horizon.
Larger version.

The city is the hub of France's motorway network, and is surrounded by an orbital road, the Peripherique. On/off ramps of the Peripherique are called 'Portes', as they correspond to the city gates. Most of these 'Portes' have parking areas and a metro station, where non-residents are advised to leave cars. Traffic in Paris is notoriously slow and dangerous.

Places in Paris

Notable places in Paris:

Monuments and buildings


The Sacre Coeur, a Roman Catholic basilica.

Museums

Suburbs, streets and other areas

  • Montmartre - historic area on the Butte, home to the Basilica of the Sacré Coeur and also famous for the studios and cafés of many great artists.
  • Champs-Élysées - a famous street, a broad boulevard often clogged with tourists.
  • Rue de Rivoli - elegant boutiques for the tourists
  • Place de la Concorde - at the foot of the Champs-Élysées, formerly Place de la Revolution, site of the infamous guillotine and the obelisk.
  • Place de la Bastille - where the Bastille prison stood until the Revolution.
  • Montparnasse - historic area on the Left Bank, famous for the studios, music-halls, and cafés of artists.
The Statue of Liberty copy on the river Seine in Paris, France. Given to the city in 1885, it faces west, towards the original Liberty in New York City.
Larger version

Night life

In the greater Paris region

Events

View over Paris and the Seine from the roof top café on La Samaritaine department store
Larger version


Another simulated-color satellite image of Paris taken on the Landsat 7. This image zooms closer into the heart of the city.

See also France

External links

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 
Modified by Geona