Please Enter Your Search Term Below:
 Websearch   Directory   Dictionary   FactBook 
  Wikipedia: Scots language

Wikipedia: Scots language
Scots language
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Scots
Total speakers: 1.5 Million +
Linguistic
classification:
Indo-European
 Germanic
  West
   Scots
Language codes
ISO 639-3: Sco

Scots (or Lallans meaning lowlands) is the form of speech used in lowland Scotland, and parts of Northern Ireland and border areas of the Republic of Ireland. Although, there has been some dispute as to whether Scots is a dialect of English, or a separate language in its own right, the British government now accepts Scots as a language and has thusly recognised it under the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages. Evidence for its existence as a separate language lies in the extensive body of Scots literature; in the existence of several Scots dialects; and in its former use as the official language of the original Scottish Parliament.

Dialects

There are at least five Scots dialects: As well as the main dialects, Edinburgh, Dundee and Glasgow have local variations on an Anglified form of Central Scots. In Aberdeen, Mid Northern Scots is spoken.

Status

There is little doubt that, had Scotland remained independent, Scots would be regarded as a separate language from English. This has happened in Norway with Norwegian. Norwegian, once regarded as a dialect of Danish, has been regarded as a language in its own right since Norwegian independence in the nineteenth century.

Since England joined Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, it is probably more correct to regard Scots as a group of dialects closely related to English. However, since Scotland has distinct political, legal and religious systems there are many terms that are only used in Scotland. For instance, libel and slander, separate in English law, are bundled together as defamation in Scots law.

On the other hand, many Scots words have become part of English: flit move home, greed, eerie, cuddle, clan, stob a post.

Scots has changed to some extent over the years, as any living language does, though some would say that it has been more loyal to its Anglo-Saxon roots than English: compare kirk (Sc) with church (En) and ken (Sc) with know (En).

Although Scots remained culturally fairly healthy in the Northeast and the Northern Isles throughout the 19th and early 20th century, it held little interest for the literary elite of Central Scotland until the arrival of Hugh MacDiarmid's Lallans Movement in the 1920s.

Examples of Scots literature can be found on the Internet from John Barbour in the 14th century up to MacDiarmid in the 20th century, for those who are interested. But the most famous Scots literature worldwide is undoubtedly Robert Burns poetry of the late 18th century. An humorous example can be found in the Burns supper article, in the form of the Address To A Haggis.

The book Trainspotting by Irvine Welsh was written using the highly anglicised Edinburgh dialect of Scots (and later made into a movie of the same name, though with language allegedly watered down for an international audience). Robert Burns is the most famous of the poets to have written in Scots.

These Germanic language dialects are distinct from Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic language still spoken by some in the Highlands and Islands to the west, though several Scots words, such as clan, loch, are Gaelic and others such as gowk come from Norse.

Some Grammar features

Nouns

Nouns usually form their plural in –(e)s but some irregular plurals occur: ee/een (eye/eyes), cauf/caur (calf/calves), horse/horse (horse/horses), cou/kye (cow/cows), shae/shuin (shoe/shoes). Nouns of measure and quantity unchanged in the plural fower fit (four feet), twa mile (two miles), five pund (five pounds), three hunderwecht (three hundredweight).

Diminutives

Diminutives in –ie, burnie small burn brook, feardie/feartie (frightened person, coward), gamie (gamekeeper), kiltie (kilted soldier), postie (postman), wifie (woman), rhodie (rhododendron), in -ock, bittock (little bit), playock (toy, plaything), sourock (sorrel) and Northern –ag, bairnag (little) bairn (child, Cheordag (Geordie), -ockie, hooseockie (small house), wifeockie (little woman).

Modal verbs

The modal verbs mey (may), ocht tae (ought to), and sall (shall), aren’t usually used in Scots but occur in anglified literary Scots. Can, shoud (should and will are the preferred Scots forms. Scots employs double modal constructions He'll no can come the day (He won't be able to come today, A micht coud come the morn (I may be able to come tomorrow), A uised tae coud dae it, but no nou (I could do it once, but not now).

Present tense of verbs

The present tense of verbs ends in –s in all persons and numbers except when a single personal pronoun is next to the verb, Thay say he's ower wee, Thaim that says he's ower wee, Thir lassies says he's ower wee (They say he's too small), etc. Thay’re comin an aw but Five o thaim's comin, The lassies? Thay've went but Ma brakes haes went. Thaim that comes first is serred first (Those who come first are served first). The trees growes green in simmer (The trees grow green in summer).

Wis 'was' may replace war 'were', but not conversely: You war/wis thare.

Past tense of verbs

The regular past form of the verb is –it or –t(e)d, according to the preceding consonant or vowel hurtit, skelpit (smacked), Mendit, kent/kenned (knew/known), cleant/cleaned, scrieved (scribbled), telt/tauld (told), dee’d (died). Some verbs have distinctive forms greet/grat/grutten (weep/wept), fesh/fuish/fuishen (fetch/fetched), lauch/leuch/lauchen (laugh/laughed), gae/gaed/gane (go/went), gie/gied/gien (give/gave/given), pit/pat/pitten (put/put/put/), git/gat/gotten (got/got/got).

Word order

Scots prefers the word order He turnt oot the licht to He turned the light out and Gie me it to Give it me.

Certain verbs are often used progressively He wis thinkin he wad tell her, He wis wantin tae tell her.

Verbs of motion may dropped before an adverb or adverbial phrase of motion A’m awa tae ma bed, That’s me awa hame, A’ll intae the hoose an see him.

Ordinal numbers

Ordinal numbers ending in –t seicont, fowert, fift, saxt - (second, fourth, fifth, sixth) etc. first, Thrid/third - (first, third).

Adverbs

Adverbs are usually of the same form as the verb root or adjective especially after verbs. Haein a real guid day (Having a really good day. She's gey fauchelt (She's awfully tired).
Adverbs are also formed with –s, -lies, lins, gate(s)and wey(s) –wey, whiles (at times), mebbes (perhaps), brawlies (splendidly), geylies (pretty well), aiblins (perhaps), airselins (backwards), hauflins (partly), hidlins (secretly), maistlins (almost), awgates (always, everywhere), ilkagate (everywhere), onygate (anyhow), ilkawey (everywhere), onywey(s) (anyhow, anywhere), endweys (straight ahead), whit wey (how, why).

Subordinate Clauses

Verbless subordinate clauses introduced by an and expressing surprise or indignation She haed tae walk the hale lenth o the road an her sieven month pregnant, He telt me tae rin an me wi ma sair leg (and me with my sore leg).

Negation

Negation occcurs by using the adverb no, in the North East nae, as in A'm no comin (I'm not coming), or by using the suffix –na (pronunciation depending on dialect), as in A dinna ken (I don’t know), Thay canna come (They can’t come), We coudna hae telt him (We couldn't have told him), and A hivna seen her (I haven't seen her). The usage with no is preferred to that with –na. With contractable auxiliary verbs like –ll for will, or in yes no questions with any auxiliary He'll no come and Did he no come?

Relative pronoun

The relative pronoun is that for all persons and numbers, but may be left out Thare's no mony fowk (that) leeves in that glen (There aren't many people who live in that glen). The anglicised forms wha, wham, whase 'who, whom, whose', and the older whilk 'which' are literary, whilk is only used after a statement He said he'd tint it, whilk wis no whit we wantit tae hear. The possessive is formed by adding ’s or by using an appropriate pronoun The wifie that’s hoose gat burnt, the wumman that her dochter gat mairit; the men that thair boat wis tint.

A third adjective/adverb yon/yonder, thon/thonder indicating something at Some distance D’ye see yon/thon hoose ower yonder/thonder? Also thae (those) and thir (these), the plurals of this and that. In Northern Scots this and that remain so in the plural.

Related topics

See also History of the Scots language

External Links


  

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 
Modified by Geona