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A number of Creole languages are based on the Spanish language.
Also spoken in Malaysia (Sabah).
The ethnic group which speaks this Creole consists only of 2500 people, as of 1989.
The village was formed by escaped slaves (Maroons) and sometimes Native Americans. Since many slaves had not been subjected to a lot of contact with white people, the palenqueros spoke Creole languages from Spanish language and their African ones.
Spanish speakers are unable to understand Palenquero. There are some influences from Kongo in Democratic Republic of Congo. A 10% of the population of age under 25 years speaks Palenquero, as of 1998. Most common to the eldery.
This Creole is reported to becoming more similar to Spanish language as the time passes.
For a discussion about the origins of this language see .
Spanish-influenced indigenous languages
Some indigenous languages are deeply influenced by the Spanish language, but seems to be classified as different than Creole by linguistic writers.
Chamorro (or Tjamoro) is a Spanish-influenced language spoken by about 78000 people in Guam and Northern Mariana Islands. Accordiang to a 1991 publication, 62500 of the speakers live in Guam, which is roughly the half population. Based on a 1990 research, the speakers in Northern Mariana islands are 14205.
Linguistically it belongs to the Austronesian family, Western Malayo-Polynesian.
Taught at the University of Guam. Some Bible portions are translated in Chamorro.