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Wikipedia: Venera
Venera
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The Venera series of satellites was developed by the USSR for the gathering of data from Venus. They were relatively successful after initial glitches were sorted out. As with some of the USSR's other satellite series they were launched in pairs with a second satellite being launched soon (a week or two) after the first of the pair.

  • 1VA (proto-Venera) - Flyby - launched February 4, 1961 : Failed to leave earth orbit
  • Venera 1 - Flyby - launched February 12, 1961 : Communications lost enroute to Venus
  • Venera 2 - Flyby - launched November 12, 1965 : Communications lost just before arival
  • Venera 3 - Atmospheric Probe - launched November 16, 1965 : Communications lost just before atmospheric entry
  • Venera 4 - Atmospheric Probe - launched June 12, 1967 : Arrived October 18, 1967 and was the first probe to enter another planet's atmosphere and return data
  • Venera 5 - Atmospheric Probe - launched January 5, 1969 : Arrived May 16, 1969 and successfully returned atmoshperic data before being crushed by pressure within 26km of the surface
  • Venera 6 - Atmospheric Probe - launched January 10, 1969 : Arrived May 17, 1969 and successfully returned atmospheric data before being crushed by pressure within 11km of the surface
  • Venera 7 - Lander - launched August 17, 1970 : Arrived December 15, 1970, was the first successful landing of a spacecraft on another planet and survived for 23 minutes before succumbing to the heat and pressure
  • Venera 8 - Lander - launched March 27, 1972 : Arrived July 22, 1972 and survived for 50 minutes before succumbing to the heat and pressure
  • Venera 9 - Orbiter and Lander - launched June 8, 1975 : Arrived October 22, 1975, sent back the first (black and white) images of Venus' surface while the lander survived 53 minutes before succumbing to the heat and pressure
  • Venera 10 - Orbiter and Lander - launched June 14, 1975 : Arrived October 25, 1975, the lander surviving 65 minutes bfore succumbing to the heat and pressure
  • Venera 11 - Flyby and Lander - launched September 9, 1978 : Arrived December 25, 1978, the lander survived for 95 minutes; however the imaging systems had failed
  • Venera 12 - Flyby and Lander - launched September 14, 1978 : Arrived December 21, 1978, the lander surviving for 110 minutes and recorded what is thought to be lightning
  • Venera 13 - Flyby and Lander - launched October 30, 1981 : Arrived March 1, 1982, returned the first colour images of Venus' surface and discovered leucite basalt in a soil sample using a spectrometer
  • Venera 14 - Flyby and Lander - launched November 14, 1981 : Arrived March 5, 1982, a soil sample revealed tholeiitic basalt (similar to that found on Earth's mid-ocean ridges)
  • Venera 15 - Orbiter - launched June 2, 1983 : Arrived October 10, 1983 and mapped (along with Venera 16) the northern hemisphere down to 30 degrees from North (resolution 1-2km)
  • Venera 16 - Orbiter - launched June 7, 1983 : Arrived October 14, 1983 and mapped (along with Venera 15) the northern hemisphere down to 30 degrees from North (resolution 1-2km)

Venera is the Russian name for Venus.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 
Modified by Geona