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  Wikipedia: Xinjiang

Wikipedia: Xinjiang
Xinjiang
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Xinjiang (新疆 in Pinyin: xin1 jiang1, in Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang, in Wade-Giles: Hsin-chiang, literal meaning: "New Frontier") Uighur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China, sometimes known as Chinese Turkestan or Eastern Turkestan (Turkestan also spelt Turkistan). The capital is Urumqi. Xinjiang's area is 1,650,000 km² (637,000 sq.mi) and the population is estimated at about 19 million.

新疆维吾尔自治区
Xinjiang Uygur Zizhiqu
Province Abbreviation(s): 新
Capital Urumqi
Area
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 1st
1,650,000 km²
xx%
Population
 - Total (2001)
 - Density
Ranked 24th
19,250,000
11.6/km²
Administration Type Autonomous Region

History

Traversed by the Silk Road, Xinjiang has been loosely controlled by China since the Han Dynasty. However, because it is far from eastern China, it has been mostly autonomous. It has also been ruled by the Mongols, Uighurs, and the pre-Turkic Tocharians. The Qing Empire established Xinjiang Province in 1884.

In the period before the establishment of the People's Republic of China, Xinjiang was ruled by the warlord Sheng Shicai.

The autonomous region was established on October 1, 1955.

Subdivisions

Xinjiang contains 2 prefecture-level cities, 7 prefecturess, and 5 autonomous prefectures. Below them, there are 11 districts, 20 county-level cities, 62 counties, and 6 autonomous counties. 4 of the county-level cities without prefectures are administered directly by Xinjiang.

{| border=1 cellpadding=5 ! Conventional !! Hanzi !! Pinyin !! !! |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Autonomous prefectures |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Ürümqi ||烏魯木齊市|| Wulumiqi || || |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Karamay ||克拉瑪依市|| Kelamayi || || |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Direct-control county-level administrative units (直轄縣級行政單位): cities |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Shihezi ||石河子市|| same || || |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Tumushuk? ||圖木舒克市|| Tumushuke || || |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Alar ||阿拉尔市 || Ala'er || || |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Wujiaqu ||五家渠市||same || || |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Autonomous prefectures |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Turpan ||吐魯番地區|| Tulufan || || |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Kumul ||哈密地區|| Hami || || |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Hetian ||和田地區|| same|| || |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Aksu ||阿克蘇地區|| Akesu || || |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Kashi ||喀什地區|| Keshe || || |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Autonomous prefectures |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Kezilesu? ||克孜勒苏州|| Kezilesu || || |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Bayinguoleng? ||巴音郭楞州|| Bayinguoleng || || |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Chanji ||昌吉州|| same|| \same|| |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Bole ||博爾塔拉州|| Bortala (Bo'ertala) || || |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Illi ||伊犁州|| || || |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- |}

Geography

Xinjiang is the largest political subdivision of China. Xinjiang is divided into two basins by Mount Tianshan. Dzungarian Basin is in the north, and Tarim Basin is in the south.

Xinjiang's lowest point is 155 metres below sea level (lowest point in China as well). Its highest peak is 8611 metres above sea level on the border with Kashmir.

The Xinjiang-Kyrgyzstan border is marked by the Tian Shan mountain range. The Torugart Pass (3752 m) is located on this border.

The Karakorum highway (KKH) links Islamabad, Pakistan with Kashgar over the Khunjerab Pass.

Major Cities:

Economy

Xinjiang is known for its fruits and produce including grapes and melons. Xinjiang also has large deposits of minerals and oil.

Demographics

Xinjiang is home to several Muslim Turkic groups including the Uighurs and the Kazakhs. Other minority ethnic groups include Hui Chinese, the Kirghiz, the Mongols, the Russians, the Xibes, the Tajik, the Uzbek, the Tartar, and the Manchus.

Xinjiang has seen a similar struggle to Tibet's in maintaining its culture. The percentage of ethnic Han Chinese in Xinjiang has grown from 6 percent in 1949 to 40 percent at present.

The Uighurs trace descent to both the Turkic Uighurs and the pre-Turkic Indoeuropean Tocharians (or Tokharians), and fair-skin, hair and eyes, as well as other 'Caucasoid' physical traits, are not uncommon among them. {| border=1 cellpadding=5 | + Populations of ethnicities in 1990 |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ! Ethnicity!! Population !! % !! !! |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Uighur || 7,093,800|| 47.33 || || |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Han || 5,647,200|| 37.68|| || |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Kazakh ||111.4,700 ||7.44 || || |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Hui || 74,100|| 4.50|| || |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Kirgiz ||14.1,300 ||0.94 || || |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- |Mongols || 139,700|| 0.93|| || |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- |Tajik || 33,700|| 0.22|| || |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Xibe || 33,500|| 0.22|| || |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Manchus || 16,200||0.11 || || |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Uzbek || 11,200|| 0.07|| || |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Russ ||7321 || 0.05|| || |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- |Daur || 5531|| 0.04|| || |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Tatar || 3910|| 0.02|| || |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Others || 6.51|| 0.34|| || |------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- |}

In 2002, there were 9,632,600 males (growth rate of 1.0%) and 9,419,300 females (growth rate of 2.2%). The population overall growth rate was 10.9‰, with 16.3‰ of birthrate and 5.4‰ mortality rate.

Culture

Tourism

Miscellaneous topics

Xinjiang is the home of the Lop Nor testing site for China's nuclear weapons program.

East Turkestan separatists who support "Uighur independence" are active in Xinjiang.

External links

zh-cn:新疆维吾尔族自治区

  

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 
Modified by Geona